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Description generated with very high confidence

 

 

 

System Requirements


Effective February 2021–June 2021

 

 

Current Update: February 25, 2021
Next Update: June 2021

This document is updated three times each calendar year.

 


Table of Contents

DRC INSIGHT System Requirements

Table of Contents  2

UPDATE: What’s New, Ended, Ending and Coming  2

UPDATE: New or Changing DRC Technology  4

Minimum vs. Recommended   5

DRC INSIGHT Testing Device Requirements  5

DRC INSIGHT Testing Device Additional Notes  6

COS Service Device Requirements  8

DRC’s Device Support Policy  9

DRC’s Operating System Support Policy  10

DRC’s Operating System Version Support  11

Trademarks  13


UPDATE: What’s New, Ended, Ending and Coming

The following is an overview of upcoming changes to the hardware and software supported for DRC INSIGHT and/or COS Service Devices.

Operating System Support

What’s New

macOS 11.0 

Apple released macOS 11.0 in the fall of 2020. DRC has added it to the list of Fully Supported operating systems.

macOS 11.1

Apple released macOS 11.1 in January of 2021. DRC has added it to the list of Fully Supported operating systems.

macOS 11.2

DRC anticipates Apple’s release of macOS 11.2 in February or March of 2021, at which time it will move to Best Effort Support. The transition to Full Support is anticipated in April or May.

What’s Ended

Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008

Microsoft ended support for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 in January of 2020. DRC continued to support both Windows 7 software and Windows Server 2008 software throughout the 2019–2020 school year.

The current versions of DRC’s software have not been tested or verified on Windows 7 or Windows Server 2008.

Following DRC's Operating System Support policy, DRC moved these operating system versions to End of Support at the end of October 2020.

iOS 12

Apple dropped support of iOS 12 in October with the introduction of iPadOS 14. DRC moved support for iOS 12 to Best Effort Support in October 2020 and moved it to End of Support in December 2020.

macOS 10.13

Apple dropped support of macOS 10.13 in November 2020 with the introduction of macOS 11.0. This resulted in DRC moving support for macOS 10.13 to Best Effort Support in November 2020 and to End of Support in January 2021.

What’s Ending

Ubuntu 16.04
Support ends in April of 2021 and will move to Best Effort support in May 2021 and End of Support in June 2021
.

macOS 10.14

Support ends in June of 2021 for macOS versions 10.14 with the implementation of the Automatic Assessment Configuration feature. See DRC INSIGHT Secure Browser for macOS Enhanced Ability to Secure Testing Devices for more information. 

What’s Coming

Windows 10X

DRC anticipated the launch of Windows 10X in the fall of 2020, but Microsoft has delayed it to later in 2021. In early May 2020, Microsoft announced their intentions to deliver Windows 10X on single-screen devices and postponed their plans for dual-screen devices. Microsoft has not yet provided a release date for Windows 10X.

Following DRC’s Operating System Support Policy, current plans are to support this operating system on single-screen devices. DRC currently does not have plans to support dual-screen devices when they are available.

DRC will continue to monitor Microsoft’s plans for releasing Windows 10X and evaluate support as the operating system and device scope evolves.

Windows 10 Spring Release

DRC anticipates Microsoft's semi-annual release with feature update to Windows in May of 2021.  Support of this release will follow DRC’s Operating System Support Policy. It is not known yet whether this release will require an update to the DRC INSIGHT Secure Browser for Windows and/or the DRC INSIGHT Secure App for Windows 10 in S mode.

 

Device Support

What’s New

No additional new devices are anticipated.

What’s Ended

iPad Air devices

The first model of the iPad Air device supports only iOS 12.x. Apple dropped support of iOS 12 in October with the introduction of iPadOS 14. DRC moved support for iOS 12 to Best Effort Support in October 2020 and moved to End of Support in December 2020.

What’s Ending

No additional end-of-life devices are anticipated.

What’s Coming

No new device support is anticipated.

UPDATE: New or Changing DRC Technology

The following is an overview of upcoming planned changes to DRC software and technology components.

64-bit DRC INSIGHT Secure Browser for Windows Now Available

The DRC INSIGHT Secure Browser for Windows installer has been updated to 64-bit in June of 2020. This updated version is available for download from the DRC INSIGHT Portal > General Information > Downloads – Test Setup General Information page. If the 32-bit installer is needed, please contact DRC Customer Service.

If an existing testing device has the 32-bit version installed and auto update is enabled, it will automatically update to the updated 32-bit version. To convert an existing testing device with the 32-bit version to the 64-bit version, the 32-bit version must first be uninstalled and then the 64-bit version must be installed on the testing device.

Beginning in June 2021 DRC will no longer support 32-bit version installers. If you have a 32-bit version in June of 2021 it will not automatically update. Sites will need to uninstall the 32-bit version and manually install the 64-bit version.

Testing Device and COS Service Device CPU Benchmark Ratings

DRC enhanced and simplified the processor specification for COS Service Devices and for testing devices in June of 2020. DRC now expresses the specifications in terms of a Central Processing Unit (CPU) benchmark rating that assesses overall processor performance. Prior to this the CPU specifications listed a single Intel processor with a comment of “or equivalent” without any context of that processor’s performance.

The CPU benchmark ratings used for the CPU specifications are created by an independent third party, PassMark Software, that uses special software to test and gauge CPU performance benchmarks in a standardized way. The resulting ratings make it easier to understand differences in CPU performance and to set device processing standards.

It is important to note that the device specifications for test devices and COS Service Devices have not changed or increased through the use of CPU benchmark rating. The processors used in 2019-20 System Requirements were used to determine the CPU benchmark ratings in this document. DRC has not changed the system specification for either testing devices or COS Service Devices in the 2020-21 academic year.

DRC INSIGHT Secure Browser for macOS Enhanced Ability to Secure Testing Devices

DRC plans to enable Apple’s Automatic Assessment Configuration (AAC) feature in June of 2021. AAC gives the DRC INSIGHT Secure Browser for macOS access to more system features and provides additional capabilities to secure a testing device. To leverage these new system features Apple requires all testing devices using AAC to be using macOS version 10.15.4 or newer. AAC is not offered for testing devices using macOS versions 10.15.3 or older, including all versions of macOS 10.14.

Because Apple does not support AAC on the macOS operating system prior to version 10.15.4, the DRC INSIGHT Secure Browser for macOS will not be supported for testing devices using macOS versions 10.15.3 or older (including all versions of macOS 10.14). This change does NOT apply until the end of June 2021. Until then, the DRC INSIGHT Secure Browser for macOS will continue to provide a secure testing experience for these older versions of the macOS operating system.

Minimum vs. Recommended

Throughout this document, the Minimum level of requirements represents a low compliance threshold. For the best student testing experience, DRC advises using the Recommended level or above. The Recommended level is required for testing with accommodations such as Human Voice Audio (HVA), Text-To-Speech (TTS), and Video Sign Language (VSL).

DRC INSIGHT Testing Device Requirements

Base Hardware Requirements

These base hardware requirements apply to all device types and operating systems unless noted.

·         Processor

o   iPad N/A

o   Minimum CPU benchmark rating of 600*

o   Recommended – CPU benchmark rating of 3000* or higher

·         Available Memory

o   Minimum 2 GB RAM

o   Recommended 4 GB RAM or higher

·         Available Disk Space           

o   Minimum 10 GB

o   Recommended 20 GB or more

·         Screen Size – Required 9.5” or larger

·         Screen Resolution – 1024 x 768 or better

·         Network Connection – Wired or wireless network connection 3 Mbps or better

·         Internet – Required

·         Power Supply

o   Minimum Battery powered devices, a fully charged battery with a two-hour life

o   Recommended – Device plugged into a power supply

Fully Supported Operating Systems and Device Types

·         Windows

o   Both touch-screen and non-touch-screen devices

·         Chrome OS

o   Both touch-screen and non-touch-screen devices

·         iPadOS

o    iPad (5th, 6th, 7th and 8th generation)

o    iPad Air 2

o    iPad Air (3rd and 4th generation)

o    iPad Pro 9.7-inch 

o    iPad Pro 10.5-inch

o    iPad Pro 11-inch (1st and 2nd generation)

o    iPad Pro 12.9-inch (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generation)
Note: iPad mini devices are not supported.

·         macOS

o   Non-touch screen devices only

·         Linux

o   Non-touch screen devices only

 

*A processor’s CPU benchmark rating is based on a common set of factors used by PassMark Software to assess relative processor performance. Processors with the same CPU benchmark rating will perform at relatively the same level.

·         Use the link www.cpubenchmark.net/cpu_list.php for a searchable list of processors with their benchmark ratings and other information.

·         To determine processor capability on a Mac Device, Open a Terminal Window and run the following command: sysctl machdep.cpu.brand_string

 

Supported Accessories

·         Mouse

·         English language keyboard (internal and external, wired and wireless)

·         Touchpad

·         Headphones

·         Microphone earphones

·         Earbuds

·         Stylus for touch devices

·         Other input devices as supported for accommodations (determined in conjunction with each state department of education).

Note: The input device must allow students to select and deselect; drag items; highlight text, objects, and areas; enter letters, numbers, and symbols; use the Shift, Tab, Return, Delete, and Backspace keys.

Unsupported Accessories

·          Smart Board interfaces

 

DRC INSIGHT Testing Device Additional Notes

Wi-Fi Recommendations

When testing using a wireless network, DRC recommends a wireless site survey be completed to ensure that there is enough unobstructed wireless coverage in testing areas. This survey should address coverage and verify that the anticipated number of testers can take the test in the same area of the building at one time (device density).

The survey should also verify that there is adequate Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), and Internet bandwidth to support the number of testers expected to be testing at the same time. And, it should account for other traffic in the building that will be occurring at the time of testing.

Windows and Chrome OS Touch-Screen Devices

Device manufacturers use different methods to implement touch-enabled screens for their devices. DRC verifies DRC INSIGHT on manufacturers' touch devices commonly used in educational settings.

Neverware CloudReady and DRC INSIGHT—PCs and MACs to Chromebooks

CloudReady from Neverware is a reduced-feature Chrome operating system that runs on older PC and MAC hardware with limited resources. DRC and Neverware have tested CloudReady and have confirmed that it meets the requirements for testing. Sites will need to partner with Neverware for this solution.

Neverware and DRC offer full support for CloudReady for testing with DRC INSIGHT on testing devices that meet the DRC Chrome OS system requirements. Sites using CloudReady should follow the Chrome OS installation instructions.

Tablet/Netbook/Chrome Devices

Because tablet/Netbook/Chrome devices are not easily configurable for additional memory and storage (disk space) upgrades, DRC recommends that these devices be streamlined for the DRC INSIGHT Secure App.

DRC recommends all applications and features that are unnecessary for testing be removed, turned off, or disabled to ensure that the maximum amount of device memory is available for testing. This includes services such as Bluetooth (unless a Bluetooth keyboard or mouse is needed), GPS, and power-saving modes that reduce performance to maximize battery life. DRC also recommends rebooting these devices before testing. These activities help free available memory. Devices that lack enough memory may experience issues.

IPA Software

Intelligent personal assistant (IPA) software, such as Siri for iPadOS and macOS, or Cortana for Windows 10, should be disabled during testing for the appropriate devices. In some cases, this functionality can be disabled automatically using administrator controls such as Mobile Device Management (MDM) software.

If IPA software is not disabled, the testing site is responsible for ensuring the security and integrity of the test by actively monitoring that students are not using this capability during the test.

Microsoft Teams App

The Microsoft Teams App should be disabled during testing for the appropriate devices. This functionality can be disabled by managing the deployment/installation of the testing device’s Microsoft suite or refer to the “Use Group Policy to prevent Microsoft Teams from starting automatically after installation” section in the “Deploy Microsoft Teams with Microsoft 365 Apps” guide to learn more about how Microsoft recommends disabling Microsoft Teams.

If the Microsoft Teams App is not disabled, the testing site is responsible for ensuring the security and integrity of the test by actively monitoring that students are not using this capability during the test.

Collaboration Tools

DRC recommends disabling collaboration tools like Google Chat, Google Meet, Zoom, and WebEx before testing.

Automatic Operating System Updates and Other Background Processes

Some operating system vendors have policies where updates are automatically applied in the background. Update processes running in the background on testing devices consume CPU and memory and can affect the testing experience. For example, audio playback may be choppy and Speaking test responses may be distorted. To avoid this situation, verify that no background processes are running on testing devices during testing. Also, if a testing device is set to accept updates automatically, verify that it has the most current DRC-supported version already installed before the test session starts.

Accommodations

Tests with the Text-to-Speech (TTS), Human Voice Audio (HVA) or Video Sign Language (VSL) accommodations are required to be administered with a COS Service Device.

 

COS Service Device Requirements

Base Hardware Requirements

These base hardware requirements apply to all device types and operating systems.

·         Processor

o   CPU benchmark rating of 3000 or higher*

·         Available Memory

o   4 GB RAM or higher

·         Available Disk Space           

o   Minimum – 10 GB

o   Recommended – 20 GB or more

·         Network

o   A COS Service Device should be connected to the network through a wired connection.

Operating System Requirements

·         COS Service Device software is supported on the following operating systems:

o   64-bit Windows

o   64-bit macOS

o   64-bit Linux

·         COS Service Device software cannot be installed on an iPadOS or Chrome OS device.
Note: iPadOS and Chrome OS testing devices that have the DRC INSIGHT Secure App installed on them can be associated with any COS Service Device, regardless of its operating system. For example, an iPad or Chromebook testing device can connect to a Windows, Mac, or Linux COS Service Device.

Examples of COS Service Device Configurations

The following table lists examples of device processor and memory configurations for a COS Service Device to support various numbers of concurrent testers.

Note that testing sites are not limited to these configurations—they are listed to provide guidance regarding the scalability of COS Service Devices.

The table also lists the available shared network bandwidth required based on the number of concurrent testers. Shared bandwidth includes the Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), and Internet Service Provider (ISP) bandwidth. The bandwidth for each network segment should meet or exceed the minimum bandwidth listed in the last column of the table.

Shared bandwidth does not include the minimum bandwidth from the testing device to the network because that bandwidth is not shared by other testing devices. The minimum bandwidth from the testing device to the network is about 3-5 Mbps.

Number of Concurrent Testers

Processor*

Available Memory

Minimum Available Shared Network Bandwidth for Top End of Concurrent Testers Range

Up to 100

A CPU benchmark rating of 3000 or higher

4 GB RAM

100 Mbps

Up to 200

A CPU benchmark rating of 4000 or higher

4 GB RAM

150 Mbps

Up to 300

A CPU benchmark rating of 6000 or higher

4 GB RAM

200 Mbps

Up to 500

A CPU benchmark rating of 8000 or higher

4 GB RAM

400 Mbps

Up to 750

A CPU benchmark rating of 12000 or higher

8 GB RAM

600 Mbps

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1 Listing of examples of device processor and memory configuration for a COS Service Device to support various numbers of concurrent testers.

*A processor’s CPU benchmark rating is based on a common set of factors used by PassMark Software to assess relative processor performance. Processors with the same CPU benchmark rating will perform at relatively the same level.

  Use the link www.cpubenchmark.net/cpu_list.php for a searchable list of processors with their benchmark ratings and other information.

  To determine processor capability on a Mac Device, open Terminal Window and run the following command:
sysctl machdep.cpu.brand_string


DRC’s Device Support Policy

Device Categories

DRC’s approach is to support our software on the devices most commonly used in the classroom. DRC’s device support policy for these devices considers three factors:

1.       Does the device’s specification meet DRC’s system requirements?

2.       Is the device running a DRC supported operating system version?

3.       Does the vendor support the device? (This question mainly applies to iPads and Chrome OS devices.)

When the answer to all these questions is yes, DRC will provide Full Support for the device. In other words, Full Support is provided for DRC software on vendor-supported devices that meet DRC’s device requirements and that are running under a supported operating system.

When a vendor ends support for a device, the device will no longer receive necessary security and functionality upgrades. This can compromise DRC’s ability to create a secure testing environment and may impact DRC’s software ability to function properly if the device does not support functionality DRC software requires. After the vendor ends support, DRC will provide Best Effort Support for a short period before also ending support.

Currently, vendor device support affects mainly Apple’s iPad devices and devices running Google’s Chrome OS.

Apple iPad Devices

When an Apple iPad model no longer has an Apple supported operating system version these devices are considered unsupported by Apple. Because Apple no longer supports the device, DRC is unable to offer support and recommends these iPad devices not be used for DRC INSIGHT online testing.

Google Chrome OS Devices

Each Google Chrome OS device has an Auto Update Expiration (AUE) date. Before reaching this date, the device automatically receives new software updates from Google. As Google’s Auto Update policy for Chrome OS devices states,

Chrome devices receive automatic updates regularly that enhance both the device itself and the software on the device. …However, end-to-end updates for all our devices to ensure the highest levels of security requires dependencies on many third-party hardware and software providers so we cannot indefinitely ensure that older Chrome devices will receive updates to enable new OS and browser features.

Google bases Chrome OS device’s AUE date on the model’s first production date, not the date the device was purchased. This is typically 5-6 years after the model’s first production release. When a device reaches its AUE date, Google considers the device obsolete, software updates from Google are no longer guaranteed, the device may not receive necessary security and functionality upgrades, and Google suspends the ability to manage it using the Google Management Console.

To determine the AUE date for a Chrome device, use the following link to Google’s Auto Update policy and the list of Chrome devices with their AUE dates: support.google.com/chrome/a/answer/6220366.

DRC will offer Best Effort Support for unmanaged Chrome devices (the DRC INSIGHT Secure Chrome App was manually installed) that meet the system device and supported operating system requirements.

Even if the device still has a supported version of Chrome OS, DRC recommends replacing any Chrome devices that have reached or will reach their AUE date within the school year.


DRC’s Operating System Support Policy

When a software vendor ends support for an operating system (or level), they discontinue free security updates for that software. This can present large and immediate security and support risks to the software’s users and potentially compromise DRC’s ability to create a secure testing environment. As a result, DRC strongly recommends that all clients use fully supported versions of operating systems.

Support Timeline

Graphic showing support timeline. 
Phase 1: Best Effort Support. 
Phase 2: Fully Supported. 
Phase 3: Best Effort Support. 
Phase 4: End of Support.

To accomplish the dual goals of minimizing security risks to DRC clients while making necessary software changes, DRC has established a multi-phase support timeline for the transition from an unsupported operating system or level to a supported operating system or level.

Note: DRC assumes no responsibility or liability for software transition processes at testing sites.

Phases 1 and 3: Best Effort Support

The DRC Support team will help troubleshoot issues reported concerning the operating system or level and DRC software applications as best we can, but DRC cannot guarantee a resolution.

If a problem is uncovered, DRC Support will report the issue to DRC Development. Again, we cannot guarantee a fix, software update, or resolution timeline for software fixes or updates. If DRC determines that an issue is related to a client’s network, hardware, or thirdparty software, the client must obtain support directly from the software vendor or the hardware manufacturer.

Best Effort Support occurs at both ends of the software lifecycle.

·         Phase 1: After DRC software testing begins and before the software is fully supported by DRC. DRC offers Best Effort Support for any new version of a supported operating system (OS) product within 30 days of public availability of the OS product version, or by the next planned common or client-specific release date of the DRC application, whichever duration is greater.

·         Phase 3: After the software is no longer supported by the vendor and before the end of DRC support. Once the OS product version has reached the end of vendor support, DRC offers Best Effort Support until the next planned common or client-specific release date of the DRC application, at which point it is restricted from use unless DRC chooses to extend support.

Phase 2: Fully Supported

Operating system versions on the DRC Fully Supported operating system list have been verified by DRC. DRC supports major versions that are publicly supported by the product vendor and minor versions of the product when DRC deems necessary. Any new version of a supported OS product will be Fully Supported by all DRC applications within 90 days of public availability of the version of the OS product, or by the next planned common or client-specific release date of the DRC application, whichever duration is greater.

Phase 4: End of Support

The next release of DRC software applications will not work with the unsupported operating system or level. It is restricted from use.


DRC’s Operating System Version Support

Phase 1 Best Effort Support

The operating systems listed below are included in Phase 1: Best Effort Support.

·         macOS 11.2 – anticipated February or March 2021

·         Windows 10 spring update – anticipated May 2021

Phase 2: Fully Supported

The most current version of the operating systems listed below are included in Phase 2: Fully Supported.

Windows

·         Windows 8.1

·         Windows 10 Semi-Annual Channel servicing options (1)(2)

·         Windows 10 in S mode

·         Windows Server 2012 R2

·         Windows Server 2016

·         Windows Server 2019

iPadOS (3)

·         iPadOS 13.x (4)

·         iPadOS 14.x

Chrome OS

·         Chrome OS recent stable channel (5)(6)(7)

macOS

·         macOS 10.14

·         macOS 10.15

·         macOS 11.0

·         macOS 11.1

·         macOS 11.2 – anticipated April or May 2021

Linux

·         Ubuntu 16.04, LTS version, with 64-bit Gnome 3.4, Unity Shell - moves to Best Effort Support in May 2021

·         Ubuntu 18.04, LTS version with Gnome Shell

·         Ubuntu 20.04 LTS version with Gnome Shell

Phase 3: Best Effort Support

The operating systems listed below are included in Phase 3: Best Effort Support.

·         Ubuntu 16.04, LTS version, with 64-bit Gnome 3.4, Unity Shell - May 2021

Phase 4: End of Support

The operating systems listed below are included in Phase 4: End of Support.

·         iOS 12.x

·         macOS 10.13

·         Ubuntu 16.04, LTS version, with 64-bit Gnome 3.4, Unity Shell - June 2021

·         macOS 10.14 – June 2021

Operating System Notes

Note: Mac and Linux server software are not supported.

Note: DRC recommends using operating system levels that are Fully Supported. When End of Support occurs during a typical testing cycle, DRC will continue to provide Best Effort Support until the testing cycle ends. DRC recommends that sites upgrade to a fully supported level before the testing cycle begins.

(1)   DRC fully supports the most recent version of Windows 10 available for the Semi-Annual Channel servicing options within 90 days of public availability of the new version. DRC will offer Best Effort support for previous versions of Windows 10 available for the Semi-Annual Channel servicing options that Microsoft maintains support for with servicing updates. For details, see the Microsoft Windows 10 version support website and support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/13853/windows-lifecycle-fact-sheet.

(2)   DRC currently supports the Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education editions of Windows 10.

(3)   See iPadOS Support section below

(4)   DRC advises devices to be on the most current version of the operating system. Devices with iPadOS 13 need to be on 13.4 or higher. Apple requires this for the use of iPadOS’s Automatic Assessment Configuration (AAC) feature

(5)   See Chrome OS Support section below.

(6)   DRC offers Best Effort Support for unmanaged Chrome devices (the DRC INSIGHT Secure App for Chrome OS was manually installed) that meet the system device and supported operating system requirements

(7)   DRC offers Best Effort Support versions from 83 to the stable channel levels.

iPadOS Support

The iPadOS release strategy provides both major and minor release versions.

·         Major release versions are indicated by the number to the left of the decimal point. For example, release 13.x and release 14.x are major release versions.

·         Minor release versions are indicated by the number to the right of the decimal point. For example, release 13.1 and release 13.2 are minor release versions of major release version 13.

DRC offers the following levels of support:

·         Full Support for the most recent major release version of iPadOS within 90 days of public availability of the new version. During the 90 days of testing/verification, DRC provides Best Effort Support of the new major release version.

·         Best Effort Support for minor release versions of iPadOS as soon as they are made available to the public and will fully support these versions as soon as DRC completes testing/verification. DRC will attempt to fully support minor release versions within 30 days of their release.

Note: DRC offers Best Effort Support for any previous versions of iPadOS for which Apple maintains support.

Chrome OS Support

DRC offers the following levels of support for Chrome OS:

·         Full Support for the current stable channel level.

·         Best Effort Support for stable channel levels between level 83 and current stable channel level.


Note:
DRC also offers Best Effort Support for unmanaged Chrome devices (the DRC INSIGHT Secure App for Chrome OS was manually installed) that meet the system device and supported operating system requirements.

·         End of Support (no support) for stable channel levels before 83.


Trademarks

The following are trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries:

Internet Explorer

Microsoft

Microsoft Edge

Windows

Windows Vista

Windows XP

Windows 7

Windows 8

Windows 10

Windows 10 in S mode

Windows 10X

The following are trademarks or registered trademarks of Apple Corporation in the United States and/or other countries:

Apple

iOS*

iPad

iPadOS

Macintosh

Mac

macOS

Safari

*iOS is a trademark or registered trademark of Cisco in the United States and other countries and is used under license.

The following are trademarks or registered trademarks of Google Corporation in the United States and/or other countries:

Chrome

Chrome OS

Chromebook

Google Play

Firefox is a trademark or registered trademark of Mozilla Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.

Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds.

Ubuntu and Canonical are registered trademarks of Canonical Ltd.

Gnome is a trademark of the Gnome Foundation.

The following are trademarks or registered trademarks of Data Recognition Corporation (DRC) in the United States and/or other countries:

DRC INSIGHT Online Learning System

DRC INSIGHT